Skip to main content

Research Repository

Advanced Search

Working With and In Small Groups

King, Elaine



Andrea Creech

Donald A. Hodges

Susan Hallam


This chapter provides insight into two kinds of small group work: “supervised” – guided by a supervisor, such as a teacher or facilitator; and “unsupervised” – self- managed or without supervisory input. Evidence about group work is discussed, drawing on research across a range of educational and community contexts, including the ways in which teachers guide students in the activity of composing or performing music together and how facilitators work with community musicians in therapeutic settings. Studies of small groups working without an official leader or supervisor, such as when musicians rehearse in chamber ensembles, will provide alternative insights into learning, including the ways in which individuals acquire experience, knowledge and valuable life skills through peer interactions and teamwork. The chapter begins with a definition of “small” group work along with discussion of characteristics and assumptions about group work. Next, theoretical and empirical research is reviewed in relation to the two main areas: first, working with small groups (supervised);
and second, working in small groups (unsupervised). Finally, issues for further research and implications for education and music in the community are identified.


King, E. (2021). Working With and In Small Groups. In A. Creech, D. A. Hodges, & S. Hallam (Eds.), International Handbook of Music Psychology in Education and the Community (320-334). London: Routledge.

Acceptance Date Feb 5, 2020
Online Publication Date May 26, 2021
Publication Date May 27, 2021
Deposit Date Sep 14, 2021
Publicly Available Date Nov 27, 2022
Publisher Routledge
Pages 320-334
Book Title International Handbook of Music Psychology in Education and the Community
Chapter Number 20
ISBN 9781000383058; 9780367769819
Keywords Group work; Collaboration; Facilitation
Public URL
Publisher URL


Accepted manuscript (369 Kb)

Copyright Statement
©2021 University of Hull.
This is an Accepted Manuscript of a book chapter published by Routledge in Routledge International Handbook of Music Psychology in Education and the Community on 27th May 2021, available online:

You might also like

Downloadable Citations