Offshore wind turbine (OWT) rotors have large diameters with flexible blade structures which are subject to asymmetrical loads caused by blade flapping and turbulent or unsteady wind flow. Rotor imbalance inevitably leads to enhanced fatigue of blade rotor hub and tower structures. Hence, to enhance the life of the OWT and maintain good power conversion the unbalanced loading requires a reliable mitigation strategy, typically using a combination of Individual Pitch Control (IPC) and Collective Pitch Control (CPC). Increased pitch motion resulting from IPC activity can increase the possibility of pitch actuator faults and the resulting load imbalance results in loss of power and enhanced fatigue. This has accelerated the emergence of new research areas combining IPC with the fault tolerant control (FTC)-based fault compensation, a so-called FTC and IPC “co-design” system. A related research challenge is the clear need to enhance the robustness of the FTC IPC “co-design” to some dynamic uncertainty and unwanted disturbance. In this work a Bayesian optimization-based pitch controller using Proportional–Integral (PI) control is proposed to improve pitch control robustness. This is achieved using a systematic search for optimal controller coefficients by evaluating a Gaussian process model between the designed objective function and the coefficients. The pitch actuator faults are estimated and compensated using a robust unknown input observer (UIO)-based FTC scheme. The robustness and effectiveness of this “co-design” scheme are verified using Monte Carlo simulations applied to the 5MW NREL FAST WT benchmark system. The results show clearly (a) the effectiveness of the load mitigation control for a wide range of wind loading conditions, (b) the effect of actuator faults on the load mitigation performance and (c) the recovery to normal load mitigation, subject to FTC action.
Liu, Y., Patton, R. J., & Shi, S. (2023). Actuator fault tolerant offshore wind turbine load mitigation control. Renewable energy, 205, 432-446. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2023.01.092