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Validation of an algorithm to reveal the U wave in atrial fibrillation

Al-Karadi, M. S.; Wilkinson, A. J.; Caldwell, J.; Langley, P.


M. S. Al-Karadi

A. J. Wilkinson

J. Caldwell

P. Langley


Major cardiac organisations recommend U wave abnormalities should be reported during ECG interpretation. However, U waves cannot be measured in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) due to the obscuring fibrillatory wave. The aim was to validate a U wave measurement algorithm for AF patients. Multi-beat averaging was applied to ECGs of 25 patients during paroxysms of AF and the presence of U waves compared to those from the same patients during sinus rhythm (SR). In a further database of 10 long-term AF recordings, the number of beats for effective U wave extraction by the algorithm was calculated. U waves were revealed in all AF recordings and there was no significant difference between the presence of U waves in AF and SR (p = 0.88). U wave amplitude was significantly increased in AF (mean (s.d.) amplitude 55 (39) AF vs 37 (28) μV SR, p = 0.005). The presence of U waves could easily be discerned when as few as 10 beats were used in the algorithm. The study demonstrates the validity of the algorithm to reveal U waves in AF recordings. The algorithm offers the potential to detect U wave abnormalities in patients with AF.


Al-Karadi, M. S., Wilkinson, A. J., Caldwell, J., & Langley, P. (2018). Validation of an algorithm to reveal the U wave in atrial fibrillation. Scientific reports, 8(1), Article 11946.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jul 12, 2018
Online Publication Date Aug 9, 2018
Publication Date Dec 1, 2018
Deposit Date Sep 28, 2018
Publicly Available Date Sep 28, 2018
Journal Scientific Reports
Print ISSN 2045-2322
Electronic ISSN 2045-2322
Publisher Nature Publishing Group
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 8
Issue 1
Article Number 11946
Keywords Atrial fibrillation; Electrocardiography – EKG
Public URL
Publisher URL


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