Remco C. J. Polman
Mental toughness in sport: Achievement level, gender, age, experience, and sport type differences
Polman, Remco C. J.; Polman, Remco C.J.; Nicholls, Adam R.; Polman, R. C J; Levy, Andrew R.; Backhouse, Susan H.
Remco C.J. Polman
Professor Adam Nicholls A.Nicholls@hull.ac.uk
Professor of Psychology/ Leader of the Sport Psychology and Coaching Group
R. C J Polman
Andrew R. Levy
Susan H. Backhouse
It was hypothesized that there would be significant differences in mental toughness among athletes of different: (a) achievement level, (b) gender, (c) age, (d) sporting experience, and (e) sport type (team vs. individual and contact vs. non-contact sports). Participants were 677 athletes and consisted of sports performers competing at international (n = 60), national (n = 99), county (n = 198), club/university (n = 289), and beginner (n = 31) levels. Results revealed a significant relationship between mental toughness and gender, age, and sporting experience. However, achievement level and the type of sport an athlete participated in was not significantly associated with mental toughness. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
|Journal Article Type||Article|
|Journal||PERSONALITY AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES|
|Peer Reviewed||Peer Reviewed|
|APA6 Citation||Nicholls, A. R., Polman, R. C. J., Levy, A. R., & Backhouse, S. H. (2009). Mental toughness in sport: Achievement level, gender, age, experience, and sport type differences. Personality and individual differences, 47(1), (73-75). doi:10.1016/j.paid.2009.02.006. ISSN 0191-8869|
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