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On-chip electrochemical detection of glucose towards the miniaturised quality control of carbohydrate-based radiotracers

Patinglag, Laila; Esfahani, Mohammad M. N.; Ragunathan, Kishan; He, Ping; Brown, Nathaniel J.; Archibald, Stephen J.; Pamme, Nicole; Tarn, Mark D.


Laila Patinglag

Mohammad M. N. Esfahani

Kishan Ragunathan

Ping He

Nathaniel J. Brown

Nicole Pamme

Mark D. Tarn


The miniaturisation of positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer production is facilitating a move towards a dose-on-demand strategy that would enable a stratified approach to patient diagnostics, but while the on-chip synthesis steps have been demonstrated, the subsequent quality control (QC) testing steps have received much less attention. As part of the development of an integrated QC platform for PET tracers, we have developed two microfluidic electrochemical detectors for the pulsed amperometric detection (PAD) of carbohydrate-based radiotracers, with a particular view to the QC testing of the most important tracer, [18F]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose ([18F]FDG). The first device employed a commercial screen-printed electrode (SPE) to enable a single-use format, while the second device incorporated wire electrodes for use as a more permanent fixture in a QC instrument. A flow-injection analysis (FIA)-style setup was used to inject boluses of d-glucose into the chips in a proxy for intended chromatographic separations prior to PAD. In proof-of-concept testing of the devices, the chips featuring the SPE and the wire electrodes yielded limits of detection of 0.1 ppm and 9 ppm, respectively, each below the required limits for [18F]FDG, and thus making both methodologies viable for the QC testing of PET radiotracers in a dose-on-demand format.


Patinglag, L., Esfahani, M. M. N., Ragunathan, K., He, P., Brown, N. J., Archibald, S. J., …Tarn, M. D. (2020). On-chip electrochemical detection of glucose towards the miniaturised quality control of carbohydrate-based radiotracers. Analyst, 145(14), 4920-4930.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Apr 24, 2020
Online Publication Date Jun 4, 2020
Publication Date Jul 21, 2020
Deposit Date Jun 13, 2020
Publicly Available Date Oct 27, 2022
Journal The Analyst
Print ISSN 0003-2654
Electronic ISSN 1364-5528
Publisher Royal Society of Chemistry
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 145
Issue 14
Pages 4920-4930
Keywords Analytical Chemistry; Spectroscopy; Electrochemistry; Biochemistry; Environmental Chemistry
Public URL
Publisher URL!divAbstract
Additional Information : This document is Similarity Check deposited; : Supplementary Information; : Laila Patinglag (ORCID); : Laila Patinglag (ResearcherID); : Mohammad M. N. Esfahani (ORCID); : Stephen J. Archibald (ORCID); : Stephen J. Archibald (ResearcherID); : Nicole Pamme (ORCID); : Nicole Pamme (ResearcherID); : Mark D. Tarn (ORCID); : Mark D. Tarn (ResearcherID); : Single-blind; : Received 22 September 2019; Accepted 24 April 2020; Advance Article published 4 June 2020


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©2020 The authors. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced without the written permission of the copyright holder

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