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Development and blood compatibility assessment of electrospun polyvinyl alcohol blended with metallocene polyethylene and plectranthus amboinicus (PVA/mPE/PA) for bone tissue engineering

Qi, Jie; Zhang, Huang; Wang, Yingzhou; Mani, Mohan Prasath; Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar


Jie Qi

Huang Zhang

Yingzhou Wang

Mohan Prasath Mani

Saravana Kumar Jaganathan


Introduction: Currently, the design of extracellular matrix (ECM) with nanoscale properties in bone tissue engineering is challenging. For bone tissue engineering, the ECM must have certain properties such as being nontoxic, highly porous, and should not cause foreign body reactions.
Materials and methods: In this study, the hybrid scaffold based on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) blended with metallocene polyethylene (mPE) and plectranthus amboinicus (PA) was fabricated for bone tissue engineering via electrospinning. The fabricated hybrid nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), contact angle measurement, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Furthermore, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), and hemolytic assays were used to investigate the blood compatibility of the prepared hybrid nanocomposites.
Results: The prepared hybrid nanocomposites showed reduced fiber diameter (238±45 nm) and also increased porosity (87%) with decreased pore diameter (340±86 nm) compared with pure PVA. The interactions between PVA, mPE, and PA were identified by the formation of the additional peaks as revealed in FTIR. Furthermore, the prepared hybrid nanocomposites showed a decreased contact angle of 51°±1.32° indicating a hydrophilic nature and exhibited lower thermal stability compared to pristine PVA. Moreover, the mechanical results revealed that the electrospun scaffold showed an improved tensile strength of 3.55±0.29 MPa compared with the pristine PVA (1.8±0.52 MPa). The prepared hybrid nanocomposites showed delayed blood clotting as noted in APTT and PT assays indicating better blood compatibility. Moreover, the hemolysis assay revealed that the hybrid nanocomposites exhibited a low hemolytic index of 0.6% compared with pure PVA, which was 1.6% suggesting the safety of the developed nanocomposite to red blood cells (RBCs).
Conclusion: The prepared nanocomposites exhibited better physico-chemical properties, sufficient porosity, mechanical strength, and blood compatibility, which favors it as a valuable candidate in bone tissue engineering for repairing the bone defects.


Qi, J., Zhang, H., Wang, Y., Mani, M. P., & Jaganathan, S. K. (2018). Development and blood compatibility assessment of electrospun polyvinyl alcohol blended with metallocene polyethylene and plectranthus amboinicus (PVA/mPE/PA) for bone tissue engineering. International Journal of Nanomedicine, 13, 2777-2788.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Mar 9, 2018
Online Publication Date May 11, 2018
Publication Date 2018
Deposit Date Jan 28, 2021
Publicly Available Date Jan 28, 2021
Journal International Journal of Nanomedicine
Print ISSN 1178-2013
Electronic ISSN 1178-2013
Publisher Dove Press
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 13
Pages 2777-2788
Keywords Scaffold; Electrospinning; Bone tissue engineering; Physico-chemical characterization; Blood compatibility
Public URL
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Copyright Statement
© 2018 Qi et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms (

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