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Factorial validity of the Mental Toughness Questionnaire-48

Perry, John L.; Clough, Peter J.; Crust, Lee; Earle, Keith; Nicholls, Adam R.


John L. Perry

Peter J. Clough

Lee Crust

Keith Earle

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Professor Adam Nicholls
Professor of Psychology/ Leader of the Sport Psychology and Coaching Group


The purpose of this study was to assess the factorial validity of the Mental Toughness Questionnaire-48 (Clough, Earle, & Sewell, 2002). In total, 8207 participants (male n= 4019, female n= 3922, unspecified = 266) aged between 16 and 68. years (M= 37.00, SD= 12.09) completed the MTQ48. Model fit was assessed using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory structural equation modeling, in addition to the robust maximum likelihood estimator. Overall, our results support the factorial validity of the MTQ48 and indicate that the MTQ48 is a robust psychometric measure of mental toughness. Along with previous data, which supports the internal validity of the MTQ48 in addition to results of this study, it would appear that the MTQ48 is an acceptable method of assessing mental toughness. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Perry, J. L., Clough, P. J., Crust, L., Earle, K., & Nicholls, A. R. (2013). Factorial validity of the Mental Toughness Questionnaire-48. Personality and individual differences, 54(5), 587-592.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Nov 9, 2012
Online Publication Date Dec 20, 2012
Publication Date 2013-04
Deposit Date Nov 13, 2014
Journal Personality And Individual Differences
Print ISSN 0191-8869
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 54
Issue 5
Pages 587-592
Keywords General Psychology
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